Dinocrates planned it according to the order of Alexander 332 BC
as the first capital to be established in Egypt on the great green sea
(a name was given by the Egyptian to the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the Nile River)
The city of Alexandria was created by the Greeks out of nothing. Rather, there were existing Pharaonic villages. This site had 16 Pharaonic villages, the largest of which was the village of Raqouda or ‘Ra Qadat’, which was called by its name, and it is the name that the Egyptian used to use even in the Greek era when he wrote the name of the city in demotic While it is written by Alexandria in Greek. The ancient Egyptian name of the village of Raquda or Rakutis and its location now is the area surrounding the Column of Diocletian
and the meaning of the name is the boundary or space.
it is one of the 44 cities bears the name Alexandria, and it is the most famous of them ever
It was said about the reasons for establishing Alexandria,
many of them that Herodotus came to Alexander in a dream and asked him to establish it,
but the reason was purely economic and military, as it is a port for transporting grain to Greece and because of its proximity to Greece.
Dinocrates planned them like ancient Greek cities in the form of chess, or what is said, in the Hypodami style.
It consists of two main and intersecting streets at right angles, which are Kanopec Street and Soma Street, each with a width of 14 meters. And two parallel side streets branching displayed 7 meters. Canopic (perhaps Fouad Street today) connected the Moon Gate from the west and the Sun Gate from the east. The street extended east to connect the city of Canopus (Abu Qir). And Soma Street (now the Prophet Daniel) intersected with Canopec Street and extends from north to south. And intersecting them was the center of the city of Alexander, where it is said that Alexander the Great was buried there in this area after his return from Babylon.
And it connected the island of Pharos, northeast of the great port, with a bridge called (heptastadion)
(Hepta: Seven STDs longitudinal scale unit).
It was a relatively narrow bridge and then turned to land that annexed the island by land in the Al-Mansheya and Al-Anfushi area. The eastern port (Portus Magnus) separated the two ports
And western (portus eunostus).
Geographical historian Strabon mentioned to us that they used lime in hypodamic planning to define the streets (limestone quarries in the Max and found the names of Alexander and the Ptolemies there) and when they ran out, they used the pills instead, so birds came from separate places to eat those grains, and that became future news for Alexandria that it would become a famous city. People from everywhere
The old city of Alexandria consisted of five neighborhoods, each of them was fired
The name of a letter from the first five Greek alphabet
(Alpha_pita_gama_delta_absilon) It represents the first letters of five Greek words:
It’s meaning: it was built by Alexander the King, the son of God
The most important of all of these neighborhoods is the royal district, which is the district that occupies almost a quarter or a third of the city, as it contains the most important landmarks of the city as it contained the royal palaces, the House of Knowledge, the Library, the Gymnasium, the Court, and the tombs of Alexander. The royal quarter was near Al-Ibrahimiyyah and Mustafa Kamel and their north.
There was a horse race track located on the outskirts of the city in the eastern part, as well as a playground on the outskirts of the city in the southwest.
In the Roman era, the Roman Emperor Augustus thought of building a new city directly east of Alexandria called Nicopolis, which became part of Alexandria now known as the “Raml” area.
Alexandria became the capital of Egypt in the Greek and Roman era.
Alexandria had a monopoly in the manufacture of papyrus in the world at that time and it used to export medicines, perfumes, and jewelry. Its economic strength remained until the Byzantine era. The days of the rule of the early Ptolemies revived until it became the most famous and largest city in the world.
The city is rectangular in shape, its sides extend along the Mediterranean Sea on one side and Lake Mariout on the other side, its location is naturally fortified, and the wall was built to increase its immunity and strength, as it is a double wall thickness from 90 cm to 1.10 cm and it is two walls, including a trench 5 m and a length of 80 stadiums and there is no Of his remains, except for a part beside the Temple of the Black Head in the gardens of Shalalat and the copper student, which is a square tower and is now a store for the French mission, and there is another part at the eastern tower in Alexandria Stadium, which is the remains of an Ottoman wall.
The city was nominally subjugated to the Romans in the year 80 BC and actually fell in the hands of Julius Caesar in 47 BC, when Rome took advantage of the conflict and civil war between Ptolemy XIII and his advisors and his sister Cleopatra VII, and after several battles Caesar won and her brother was killed, so that Cleopatra could rule alone Egypt,
The city fell in the hands of the commander “Octavius”, who later became Emperor “Augustus” on August 1, 30 BC, and with this, Egypt became a Roman state.
The Romans renewed and re-dug the old canal that connected the Nile and the Red Sea to serve trade. The Romans also gave the Jews in Alexandria, who were an essential part of the demographics of the city, many freedoms and allowed them to manage their own affairs.
Alexandria was completely destroyed in an earthquake in 7 AD
In 1995 a French team, assisted by an Egyptian team of divers, surveyed the topography of an area estimated at two and a half acres under the water towards the Citadel of Qaitbay, and found thousands of artifacts submerged under the pillars of the castle, including crowns, bases, statues, Pharaonic, Greek, and Roman remnants and a description of red granite blocks brought from Aswan.
Frank Godio, head of the research team for sunken antiquities in Alexandria, discovered the presence of Pharaonic stones in it, pottery vessels, and wood for ship remnants, which he analyzed in France with radioactive carbon, and it turned out that they belonged to the sixth century B.C.
Disappeared monuments in Alexandria
_ Alexandria lighthouse
_ Serapeum with its burials
_ The old library
_ Library Museum
The two ports
_ Alexander’s tomb
_ The royal district