“If the greatest thing that the ancient Egyptian built above the earth was the Great Pyramid,
then the greatest thing that he built underground was Serapeum Saqqara.”
Serapeum is the name given to every temple dedicated to its worshipers, Serapis,
and it is a cult that brings together two deities, Osiris and Apis.
There were many places of worship for this religion not only in Egypt but also in Greece.
The construction of Serapeum Saqqara dates back to the reign of Amenhotep III,
although there are indications of individual burials of the calf Apis in wells prior to the establishment of the Serapeum.
Then the son of Ramses II Khaum Wast dug a tunnel carved on its sides with niches in which there are noises
The Pismatic first built a second tunnel 350 meters long, 5 meters high, and 3 meters wide, which was later used by the Ptolemies.
The sarabium is divided into two parts,
the small hall and the great hall and the great corridors
totaling about 300 m with 26 coffins of different raw materials and Mariette found in the small hall
a wooden coffin and a human mummy and its entire contents were untouched by
a mask of gold and all bear the name of Khaa Um Wasit
and are all found in The Louvre Museum and some remains of the Apis calf and its statues are located
in the Agricultural Museum and a group of funerary paintings is also found in Louvre
The bull of Apis is the title of Bulls that were buried in the Serapeum tombs in Saqqara
and it was a symbol of fertility and was worshiped in Memphis, especially the appearance of one of the opinions that God Ptah embodied
The discovery was made by Auguste Mariette of 1851AD based on a manuscript he found by Strabo C1 talking about the 600 statues of the Sphinx
that were covered by sand to connect the funerary group to the city and he found
a group of them and are now in the Louvre Museum. It should be much more according to this time period,
assuming that the average life of the calf is between 25 to 30 years
if it did not die before that and there were rituals for burying the calf Apis where it is embalmed amid the rituals of grief over its death
After 70 days he is buried and the burial ceremonies participate in the burial ceremony. Maw and dwarf dancers, and among them was the famous dwarf Tios Q30, who we see the cover of his coffin in the Egyptian Museum and pictured naked on it along with the cover and found one mummified bull, and it is now in the Agricultural Museum. With seven layers of linen, it was said that he was found in the only closed coffin that detonated its cover Mariette Pasha to open it, but Mariette himself mentioned that he had not found a mummy of the holy bull of Apis in the Great Hall and therefore there is not sufficient evidence that this Serapeum was true of the Holy Bull Apis and Probably for another reason that is still unknown to us
And choosing the bull Apis, in which it is embodied, has signs that must be available, such as being alone in its mother,
i.e. not giving birth to others, and has a black color and distributed over it white dots in a specific image and its tail has two tufts of hair and
a crescent shape on its side and a scarab drawn on its tongue and at its birth, the sky thundered And other signs
The greatest benefit to the commoners was that the sacred bull Apis was also the one who prophesied,
and they could ask the bull for what they want,
and the accompanying priest would interpret the movement of
the bull whether he moved the head or tail to his prophecy
or his way of solving a problem and was also used as a spiritual mediator and one of his titles is the living mediator
Tunnels are dug into a solid rocky plateau
The length of the tunnels is 400 meters, the source of lighting used by the ancient Egyptian is unknown,
they are without electricity, completely dark and there is no known source of ventilation, and despite that,
they are well ventilated and the method of drilling in
the vaulted ceiling to relieve pressure and straightening in a certain curvature method
that enables easy transportation of granite blocks is considered one of the engineering miracles
and it is not possible to construct these tunnels with this accuracy without giant drilling machines.
They are distributed on both sides of the tunnel, and the entrances are opposing, and do not meet at the front for a specific purpose that we do not know.
The cover of one coffin is an average of 30 tons and the body of the coffin is 70 tons on average, meaning that the weight of the coffin is 100 tons,
and if we assume that the worker can pull approximately 150 kg, then we need approximately 400 workers,
and here the miracle of the method of dragging the coffins inside the tunnel, which can only accommodate 40 workers amid Difficulty breathing and seeing
The cover of the coffin is at an angle of 90 degrees precisely in order to close tightly by vacuuming the air to the body of the coffin made at an angle of 90 degrees and the rate of inclination is almost non-existent
The raw material for making coffins is granite of all kinds, which is still brought from Aswan
It is not known why the coffin was carved as a single block, and it is not known why the inner part was refined with such precision.
The coffins on which there are only four texts and are attributed to Ahmose II, Khabasha, and Cambyses. The coffin is unknown to whom and one of the opinions is that the text may
not date back to the period of the creation of the coffin, especially for its robe writing that is not at all compatible with the technology of creating granite boxes
There is a coffin with an incomprehensible dent how it occurred or the cause, and this is not specific to the Serapeum coffin, but we find it on several other coffins.
It is noticed that the Serapeum has only one entrance, its width is 3.20 m, the width of the tunnel is 3 m, and the measurements of each granite box are beautiful, so the width on both sides is amazingly identical to the same as the length, which makes it impossible to empty it from the inside with such accuracy.
Among the confusing things is what is the reason that the position of each coffin is lower than the level of the ground at times one and a half meters, which makes it difficult to move and move each coffin, and there are 28 cavities in the hall, meaning that the tomb was still waiting for two boxes that did not have
the opportunity to put them in the cavities and there are 7 coffins not Refined from the inside and outside, meaning, the opportunity did not exist.